The novels “Antichrist” by D. Merezhkovsky, “Petersburg” by A. Biely and “Evenings with Peter the Great” by D. Granin were chosen to be analyzed because they are less well described in this aspect. The novels are studied in the context of the appraisals of the role and personality of the man who created The Russian Empire. The creation of the artistic image of Peter the First has to do with the problem of fictitiousness and historic authenticity. In the twentieth century the literary image of the tzar-reformer is devoid of being idealized and loses its apologetic pathos. The creation of the true to life image of the real great man that required a deeper understanding of Peter the statesman and Peter the man turned out to be a difficult task.