Food is a vital element of the functioning of society. Without food, humans, as a species, simply cannot exist. Ensuring food security of the country is one of the priority directions of state economic policy, the most important factor in the economic security of the nation, one of the main tasks of government bodies. The article analyzes the conceptual regulation of the term “food security”. Food security is an important component of the security system of Russia. By ensuring the food security, the inviolability of the state and its sovereignty are ensured, the demographic situation, the socio-economic provisions of the population are maintained, the necessary and sufficient conditions are formed to maintain the health and quality of life of citizens of the Russian Federation. Within the framework of the article, the main directions of ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation and their implementation are considered.