De Securitate et Defensione. O Bezpieczeństwie i Obronności <p><strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2450-5005</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> 10.34739/dsd</p> <p><strong>Punktacja MEiN:</strong> 40</p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Naukowe UPH en-US De Securitate et Defensione. O Bezpieczeństwie i Obronności 2450-5005 The Course of the Information from the Action to the Public Mind. How Computers Influence Information Selection? <p>For hundreds of years, the news values have remained unchanged. There was a particular and unchanged process of transforming the information in the news. The data was gathered by reporters, turned into the news by the editors, and published by the editor in chiefs. The selection criteria appear to be the same, but the distribution has changed with technological developments. This paper tries to identify the changes in the process of gathering information, news selection, and news broadcasting. We will analyze how the roles have changed and how the new news values appear. In addition, it is essential to examine the ranking of the news val-ues influenced by the digital platforms. We will examine the role of new technology in infor-mation gathering and news diffusion. The paper will explain how roles changes affect news values. Based on the theory, we will see how the new technology influences the newsgathering process and how it influences the persons involved.</p> Mihai Belu Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 7 16 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.01 Demaskuok - The Lithuanian System to Counter Disinformation <p>This article presents Demaskuok as a practical tool to combat the so-called “fake news”, that is, preventing the circulation of false news that misleads recipients. Fake news, also referred to as disinformation, is aimed at evoking an emotional reaction, thus creating or strengthening the existing prejudices against a person, group, in order to obtain specific and intended benefits. As history shows, many fake news were created that had an impact on their audience. The greatest field for the creators of disinformation is the Internet. Despite the fact that disinformation is ubiquitous today, this article presents a reliable ‘weapon’ to fight fake news. The leader in this field is Lithuania, which has discovered effective tools in the fight against propaganda and disinformation, the creator of which is Russia. The article analyzes the activities of Russian trolls spamming social networks, and at the same time highlights the role<br />of the so-called elves, whose task is to fight Kremlin disinformation and propaganda. It was also emphasized that the basic method of combating Russian disinformation is active and responsible social action by citizens. Lithuanian elves fighting the activities of Russian trolls become, in a way, guardians of citizenship, culture, history and those values that strengthen Lithuanian citizens' resistance to information threats.</p> Marcin Konieczny Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 17 29 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.02 The COVID-19 Pandemic and the Safety of Prison Officers and Inmates – Changes and Risks <p>The aim of this article is to discuss the concept of security in the context of Prison Service officers and inmates, as well as to perceive and present the changes that had to be introduced in prisons due to the epidemic situation, and to describe the security risks (of the above-mentioned entities) caused by coronavirus in prisons. Taking certain measures to maintain the current level of security, both for Prison Service officers and inmates, was in a way forced by the pandemic. The article aims to show answers to the following questions: Has the pandemic affected the visits of loved ones and how? Have the measures needed to maintain hygiene by prisoners been increased and what measures have been taken? Has the pandemic affected the employment of detainees and how? Were there any limitations related to the classes conducted for inmates and what difficulties did the practitioners have to face? Do prisoners have<br />a right to pray? Were prisoners involved in pro-social work related to the pandemic? The basic research method to achieve the above-mentioned objectives is the analysis of the literature and available source materials on the subject of generally understood security, as well as issues related to the security of officers and inmates in prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Adriana Dróżdż Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 30 47 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.03 The COVID-19 Pandemic As a Challenge for Public Organizations. Action Evaluation – Case Study <p>The purpose of this article is to determine if and how the COVID-19 pandemic affected the functioning of public administration. The article presents changes commonly introduced in public administration and assesses their effectiveness from the point of view of people served by public institutions. The level of satisfaction of clients using public administration services during the COVID-19 pandemic was established, and the problems they<br />encountered when dealing with administrative matters were indicated. It was assumed that the restrictions on direct interpersonal contacts introduced during the coronavirus pandemic negatively<br />affected the procedure of cases in public administration and the dissatisfaction of customers.<br />To confront challenges faced by managers in public administration and the effects of<br />management in the era of a pandemic the results of research conducted by students at the College<br />of Physical Culture and Tourism with 800 inhabitants of the Pruszków district as part of the diploma project were used. Stakeholders have a neutral attitude to the functioning of public administration and recognize that the efficiency of the administration is determined by its ability to provide high-quality services, friendly attitude to the applicant and the use of procedures that are transparent and understandable to residents. The most serious problems faced by public administration during the pandemic include the lack of clear rules of accountability and the politicization of the administration as well as organizational changes that strengthen the ruling powers of the administration. Criticism directed at public administration concerns, first of all, efficient and quick service of people.</p> Mariola Pytlak Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 48 63 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.04 The Impact of the Global Pandemic on MENA Countries’ Stability <p>The article aims to analyse the situation in the MENA and neighbouring countries one decade after the so-called Arab Spring. The purpose of this study also is to analyze the<br />importance of the COVID-19 pandemic, which hampered the development of protests in the region by providing governments with a wide range of tools for public restraint and control. These measures effectively and in a relatively short period of time have significantly reduced<br />public and opposition activities, hampering the momentum that could lead to a ‘second Arab Spring’. The study uses a qualitative method – a document analysis approach – to synthesize information from various sources to ensure the validity of the information obtained.</p> Mariusz Rzeszutko Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 64 82 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.05 The Future of Poland’s Security Structures as Part of the Intensification of Threats Related to Natural Disasters <p>The occurrence of threats in the field of classification of natural disasters is becoming a more and more common phenomenon. Public administration in the form of security structures is a key element in shaping common defense against a possible escalation of dangers. In order to<br />properly implement the above assumptions, it is necessary to demonstrate increased activities in the area of planning, building strategic documents and shaping the proper characteristics of potential threats. Moreover, proper connection of security systems requires the formulation of a solid and efficient political decision-making process in the moment of emergence of crisis situations. The presented publication is an attempt to outline the above-mentioned criteria within the framework of the security structures of the Polish state.</p> Bartosz Włodarczyk Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 83 95 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.06 Logistic Management in Non-Military Crisis Situations <p>The paper presents an outline of the issues of logistics management during nonmilitary crisis situations. At the beginning, the tasks and goals of crisis management in the<br />structure of public administration are discussed. Successively, the goals and tasks of crisis logistics in the praxeological crisis management system are presented, paying particular attention to the logistic needs of the injured population and the real possibilities of securing and<br />logistic support. An important element of logistic management in a crisis situation are potential<br />possibilities (personnel, organizational, material, service), which are subject to strict balancing against the needs of the current logistic support scenario for a specific crisis situation. The conclusion highlights the specific principles and importance of logistic management in any crisis situation and its fundamental importance in the comprehensive logistical support of the injured population. The main thesis indicates the decisive importance of effective logistic management in shaping high standards of existence of the population aggrieved during a crisis<br />situation.</p> Krzysztof Ficoń Wojciech Sokołowski Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 96 108 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.07 The Concept of Food System: Food Security and Nutrition <p>Considered food systems as complex socio-ecological systems, including multiple interactions between human and natural components. The use of a systems approach to food systems has been justified. which anticipates complex interactions between human and natural systems and feedback loops that affect food security and nutrition. A food system framework that recognizes complex interactions, synergies, and feedback loops is proposed, providing a solid foundation for elucidating the drivers and mechanisms of food system change. Tools for assessing food system resilience are considered. Food system monitoring is proposed to consider the outcome of food security, as food security and nutrition is the main outcome of food systems.</p> Galina Kundeeva Copyright (c) 2022 De Securitate et Defensione. O Bezpieczeństwie i Obronności 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 109 124 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.08 The Raison D'etre of Poland in Cyberspace and Cybersecurity <p>The aim of the article is to start a discussion on the problem of the Polish reason of state in cyberspace. Therefore the assumption of the work is to refer to strategic documents and to work out on their basis the boundary conditions for the verification of the notion of the<br />reason of state in cyberspace. The work provides two scientific elements. The first one is a proposal to measure at a high level of generality the reason of state in cyberspace using tools derived from realism and constructivism. The second is the verification of the applicability of this tool to documents of strategic importance and the determination of a qualitative<br />reason of state on the proposed research model. The text opens with a methodical consideration of the construction of tools for researching Poland’s reason of state in the area of cyberspace. The article points to securitization as the main factor for considering Poland’s reason of state in cyberspace combined with the property of defensive actions.</p> Piotr Lewandowski Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 125 142 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.09 The Full Range Leadership Model in Action: A Case Study of the German Aircraft Producing Company H3 GROB Aircraft SE <p>Leadership is a fundamental part of a company’s day-to-day operations and a critical factor in its success. This case study aims to demonstrate that a single manager can lead by actually using the full range of the Full Range Leadership Model (FRLM). It also aims to provide an<br />approach to the fact that the leadership style in turn influences the led manager’s leadership style. To this end, a qualitative study was conducted using three in-depth interviews and several observations. The results indicate that a manager can implement all leadership styles of the Full Range Leadership Model in practice. It could also be observed that the leadership style of the manager<br />led by the CEO is influenced by the CEO’s own leadership style.</p> Philipp Heinzl Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 143 164 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.10 Current Challenges in the European Youth Policy <p>This article aims to focus on the current challenges of the European Youth policy, relying on data from the two most recent European Youth Strategies: The European Union Youth Strategy 2019-2027 and the Council of Europe Youth Sector Strategy 2030. Both strategies, which build on earlier initiatives and are intended to serve different priorities and purposes, emphasize the needs and issues facing young people. The article focuses on whether these policies<br />are efficient enough to support young people to achieve their rights. Considering the youth’s current challenges, the analysis reveals what can be done and who can help achieve a coherent framework which can be integrated with national policies? Furthermore, it is important to<br />acknowledge the significant repercussions of the COVID-19 crisis, which has affected every sector of a society, including the young generation sector, especially in the following areas: technological, social, civic, political, and personal. For a multitude of reasons, it is time for the European<br />Union to raise awareness about the implications of the pandemic, to review the priorities for the future, and to focus on the new challenges that arise, based on the developments over the last 24 months. The European Union must focus on implementing the bottom-up approach and participatory vision when it comes to addressing the needs and issues of youth and their situation in the future of Europe. It is crucial for the sustainable development of the European Union that youth<br />receive long-term solutions and comprehensive strategies, where young people are the main subject<br />of European policies and an active part of the decision-making processes, at all levels.</p> Ruxandra-Andreea Țuțuianu Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 165 178 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.11 Doctrinaire Schism and the Politics of Religious Sectarianism in Islam: Understanding the Root Cause of Sectarian and Religious Terrorism in the Middle-East and North Africa <p>The current difficulties and insurgency in Islamic states in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) led this study to examine why this region has seen more volatility than any other region today. Furthermore, the unusual nature of the insurgency and turmoil in this region, particularly<br />where Muslims oppose Muslims and Muslim regimes, makes one ask what is the cause. As a result,<br />this study has attempted to analyze today’s Muslim divisions through the lens of schisms in doctrines<br />and beliefs, which always lead to sectarian divisions. This paper takes a historical journey into the past<br />to explore the origins of the schisms and their consequences. The emergence of many ulama (or Ayatollahs and Sheikhs) shortly after the Prophet’s death and over the centuries of Islamic religion, each with own claim to piety, teachings, and illuminations, has led to the emergence of many sects, each claiming to be more pious than the others and adhering to the precepts, teachings, and examples laid down in the Qur’an and set by Muhammad. The fundamental differences in ideas and interpretations are what have fueled and generated today’s sectarian and religious difficulties and instability in MENA. As a result, this instability may continue for many years to come, especially when one group sees the<br />others not only as apostates, but also as an infidels who are divinely intended to be exterminated.</p> Tunde Agara Basheer Olalere Usamotu Olawale Akinrinde Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 179 201 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.12 The Rise of the Islamic Terrorist Threat in Uzbekistan After the Collapse of the USSR <p>The article aims to present the origins of the radical Islamist movement on the territory of independent Uzbekistan, especially during the rule of Islam Karimov, the<br />last leader of the Socialist Republic of Uzbekistan and the first President of the country. The article analyzes numerous foreign articles, especially reports related to the terrorist activities of Islamic organizations in Central Asia. The author wants to answer the question of what is the difference in the policy towards religion between Karimov and Shavkat Mirziyoyev, who became President after the death of the authoritarian ruler. The difference clearly showed that the change to a more liberal policy made it possible to reduce the terrorist threat in the country.</p> Mateusz Kamionka Copyright (c) 2022 Uniwersytet Przyrodniczo-Humanistyczny w Siedlcach 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 8 1 202 216 10.34739/dsd.2022.01.13