The Eyes and Ears: The Sasanian and Roman Spies ca. AD 222-450
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Słowa kluczowe

Rome
Persia
Iran
intelligence gathering
espionage
scouting

Abstrakt

The article The Eyes and Ears:
1) Provides a brief analysis of the several parallel security organizations of the two superpowers of antiquity
when they were still at their prime; 2) Discusses both internal and external security matters; 3) Analyzes separately the military and civilian intelligence; 4) Examines the role of the religious organizations, ‘heresies’ and security; 5) Discusses briefly the ways in which the intelligence was obtained, analyzed, assessed and disseminated, and for what purpose; 6) Provides an overview of the successes and failures and of the limits of intelligence; 7) Demonstrates some similarities between modern and ancient practices

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