Historia i Świat https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2299-2464</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> 10.34739/his</p> <p><strong>Punktacja MEiN:</strong> 40</p> <p> </p> Wydawnictwo Naukowe UPH pl-PL Historia i Świat 2299-2464 Strona tytułowa i spis treści https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3062 Zespół redakcyjny Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 11 1 12 Heinz Fähnrich, Die Könige der Parnawasiden. Georgien in der Weltgeschichte, Wiesbaden: Reichert-Verlag, 2020, ISBN: 978-3-9549-0525-6 https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3045 <p>Book Review</p> Erich KETTENHOFEN Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 11 339 346 10.34739/his.2022.11.20 Heinz Fähnrich, Gestalten der Geschichte Georgiens vom 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. bis zu den Mongolen, Wiesbaden: Reichert-Verlag, 2021, ISBN: 978-3-7520-0591-2 https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3046 <p>Book Review</p> Erich KETTENHOFEN Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 11 347 354 10.34739/his.2022.11.21 Fiona K. Haarer, Justinian: Empire and Society in the Sixth Century, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2022, ISBN: 978-0-7486-3678-5 https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3041 <p>Book Review</p> Joanna SZKLARZ Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-09 2022-09-09 11 355 357 10.34739/his.2022.11.22 Świadkowie przeszłości ziemi siedleckiej (biogramy) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3043 <p>Biographies of people born or related to activities in the area of Southern Podlasie and Eastern Mazovia.</p> Józef PIŁATOWICZ Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-09 2022-09-09 11 375 382 10.34739/his.2022.11.24 Goddess Venus on Julia Domna’s coins. The Political Use of the Coinage of an Augusta of the Severan Dynasty https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3057 <p>In this paper we aim to study the monetary examples of Venus dedicated to Julia Domna. The goddess appears in the numismatic records with a series of epithets and although they were initially created with specific connotations, they evolved and were widely employed on the coins of imperial women. The social and political context encouraged some types to be produced more than others at certain times. This is precisely one of the most important aspects that will be reflected upon in this study. Beyond responding to virtues related to the conjugal or maternal sphere, the policy developed by Septimius Severus and continued by his son Caracalla may have been decisive in encouraging the creation of certain coin types in order to transmit a message that was convenient for the state apparatus.</p> Pedro David CONESA NAVARRO Anita SMYK Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 175 200 10.34739/his.2022.11.11 Sources of the history of the Jewish community in Dobrzyń nad Wisłą (1507-1939) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3034 <p>No full monograph has yet been devoted to the history of the Jewish community in Dobrzyń nad Wisłą. This paper, whose subject is the almost completely unknown history of Jews from Dobrzyń in the years 1507-1939, stems not only from the author’s own interests, but also from the need to fill the above-mentioned gap. To study the topic, the author used mainly archival sources, which were the legacy of administrative and political authorities. Fragments of source materials are currently kept in the State Archive in Bydgoszcz and the State Archive in Toruń, and the branch in Włocławek. Especially noteworthy sources include: the vital records of Jewish people (1826-1936), the records of the Pomeranian Voivodeship Office in Toruń (1920-1939), the town records of Dobrzyń nad Wisłą (1917 -1937), and the records of the Board of the National Council (1950-1972). In these collections, the largest numbers of documents are extracts from birth records, official correspondence, minutes from the meetings of local authorities, and municipal inspections from the inter-war period. Apart from the above-mentioned archival collections, the author used a wide range of other source materials, for example, collections of maps kept in the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw and in the District Office in Lipno, as well as very interesting items from private collections. Most of the above-mentioned sources have not yet been published.</p> Agnieszka WITKOWSKA Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 201 218 10.34739/his.2022.11.12 The Armed Resistance Movement in Kosovo 1918-1928 according to the Albanian press https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3035 <p>Political Albania continuously made efforts to help the Kachak resistance in Kosovo, which in 1918 took over through the Committee for the National Defence of Kosovo, this resistance Albania supported by arming, of the Albanian rebellious groups. However, this Committee, except in Kosovo, its activity extended to Albania, in the consolidation and democratization of the Albanian state. To realize the National Union Hasan Prishtina established contacts with some Italian deputies from whom he received support and secured weapons to organize an armed uprising and thus overthrow the Serbian invader in Kosovo.</p> Veli KRYEZIU Bujar DUGOLLI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 237 250 10.34739/his.2022.11.14 Международное сотрудничество в области здравоохранения между Первой и Второй мировыми войнами = Mezhdunarodnoye sotrudnichestvo v oblasti zdravookhraneniya mezhdu Pervoy i Vtoroy mirovymi voynami https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3036 <p>Since the middle of the 19th century, a period of real progress in the field of public health began, government obligations towards health expanded; quarantine, isolation and other measures were introduced by the international community aimed to ensure in the first place safe trade, but also the health of the population of large Western European cities. The article examines the three new international structures in the field of health created before and after the First World War. The first in time was the Office international d’hygiène publique (OIHP), created in 1907. Shortly before the war in 1913, the International Department of Health (IHD) of the Rockefeller Foundation was founded in the United States, and straight after the war in 1920, the League of Nations Health Organization (LNHO) appeared. Despite the cooperation at certain points, the relationship between the LNHO and the OIHP was largely marked by rivalry and the reluctance of the OIHP to become part of the League of Nations. In 1920 the Epidemic Commission was founded and its first head became a well known Polish medical scientist Ludwik Rajchman. The authors also pay attention to the first epidemiological actions in Bulgaria, made possible by the activities of the Rockefeller Foundation in South-Eastern Europe.</p> Gabriela BELOVA Gergana GEORGIEVA Sergiusz LEOŃCZYK Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 251 272 10.34739/his.2022.11.15 The attitude of the soviet authorities to the first wave of ‘nomaders’ according to the documents of the ‘special folders’ of the CC CP(B)K https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3037 <p>The central party organs dealt with all issues of the internal and foreign policy of the republic, led the national economy, public organizations, and personnel policy. Therefore, the documents of the ‘special folders’ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) Kazakhstan reflect various spheres of the life of the republic, which for a long time were not available to researchers due to the highest secrecy stamp imposed. The article deals with one of such areas of the problem – the settlement of Kazakh repatriates and representatives of other nationalities from China, who left during the civil war, collectivization, famine and repressions, who, unable to withstand the attitude of local residents and the persecution of the authorities of the country, republic or regions to which they moved, returned back to Kazakhstan. The ways of solving problems related to their settlement in Soviet farms, organization of trade with them, their cultural services, medical care, their resettlement, maintenance and veterinary services for their livestock are analyzed. Authors describes the reasons and measures to prevent the mass return of "nomads" back to China, despite all the decisions taken, the measures taken by the leadership of the republic in connection with the gaps made by some representatives of local authorities during their placement.</p> Madi Tursynbekovich SHOTAYEV Kairat Shakarimovich ALIMGAZINOV Gulbanu ZHUGENBAYEVA Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 273 290 10.34739/his.2022.11.16 Crossing the Rubicon in archival sciences. Redefining the scope of state archivists in the 21st century Poland (with Ukrainian reflection) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3038 <p>The archivist’s profession has been shaped by its relations with historic sciences. In the 19th century, where first archival institutions were founded, they attracted numerous historians. It was them who primarily joined the ranks of archives’ personnel and contributed to their development. It constitutes a foundation for the traditional archival methodology, the perception of archives themselves and the self-identification of their employees. Nowadays, the world is changing more rapidly than ever before affecting the archives. Polish state archives influenced by both techno-logical and cultural revolutions are faced with a difficult choice for further advancement of their scope and activities. This article outlines the principle reasons behind the discernible changes in the Polish archival realism. The authors try to answer the question of what these changes are, in which spheres of archival work take place and on what levels. They also prepare a portrait of an employee of the modern state archive in Poland and describe the transformations in the consciousness, self-esteem and intellectual and professional condition of archivists. They confront this picture with the situation in Ukrainian archives operating in a similar geographical area, although with the experience of the realities of the Soviet Union and a different systemic path after 1991. This comparative study was based on an analysis of the scientific literature on Polish and Ukrainian archivists and the results of research conducted by the authors among employees state archives.</p> Dariusz MAGIER Sergiy POSOKHOV Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 291 309 10.34739/his.2022.11.17 The Impact of Digital Technologies on Kazakh archivists in the Age of Globalization https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3040 <p>Based on the survey questionnaire and interviews with employees of the state archives across Kazakhstan, this article examines the impact of digital technology on Kazakh archivists. Although the impact of information technology on human life in the information age is growing, there is a lack of research in Kazakhstan about how the deep transformation in society engendered by digital technology has affected the national archival system and archivists. It is therefore not fully understood how they can influence and what changes they bring to the archival system in Kazakhstan and archivists. Hence, this study aims to fill the gap in this specific area and contribute to the scholarship on archival science. The results of the study empirically confirm the positive impact of information technology on the work of archivists. The obtained data require a critical approach to the role of information technology in the work of archivists.</p> Akmaral YSKAK Gabit ZHUMATAY Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 311 327 10.34739/his.2022.11.18 Russia’s war with Ukraine and Russia’s revisionism on the international stage https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3048 <p>Russia’s armed conflict with Ukraine, ongoing since 2014, has created conditions for Russia to revise the balance of power in Eastern Europe, and even the international order established after the Cold War. The aim of this article is firstly to show Ukraine, in a highly synthetic way, as a state at a crossroads but simultaneously a key state in terms of Russia’s interests in the post-Soviet area, then the motives for Russia’s redrawing the post-Cold War international order, taking into account the location and role of Ukraine. The article merely indicates the problem of research, and does not claim the right to comprehensively cover the issue in question.</p> Tomasz STĘPNIEWSKI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 11 329 336 10.34739/his.2022.11.19 The Magnates of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th-18th century: towards Sejmiks. Ciechanowiec May 24-27, 2022 https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3044 <p>Overview and description of the 6th edition of Scientific Conference “The Magnates of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 16th-18th century” in Ciechanowiec (2022.05.24-27).</p> Artur GOSZCZYŃSKI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-10 2022-09-10 11 385 389 10.34739/his.2022.11.25 An Archaeological landscape of Sharif Abad (Solgi) settlement area in the Gamasi-Ab River Basin in Central Zagros https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/2974 <p>Solgi or Sharif Abad tepe (A&amp;B) is one of the larger settlement sites of the Gamasi-Ab river basin in Nahavand plain. This site lies at the intersection of old ancient roads that go from Sahne, Harsin and Kangavar to Nihavand and the other eastern regions. In the study of this area, pottery from the Early Bronze Age (Godin IV-Yanik, Kura-Araxes), pottery related to Godin III, II and pottery of the historical period were obtained. The examination of these pottery artefacts reveals extensive cultural exchanges of the inhabitants of the region with the northwestern and neighboring areas in the Bronze and Iron Ages. In addition, a closer examination of the lifestyle in this settlement area gives us a complete view of these people’s use of biological resources and their interaction with the environment. Among the reasons for the location and development of this settlement in the Bronze and Iron Age the main one was easy access to water resources and fertile agricultural lands. This article provides a brief overview of the geographical situation of the region and the history of archaeological research conducted in Nihavand and then focuses on the natural landscape of Sharif Abad. The next part of it describes the archaeological data from this location and analyzes its chronology. The article is concluded by a succinct summary.</p> Ali NOURALLAHI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Historia i Świat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 11 15 40 10.34739/his.2022.11.01 The circular pond of Dehbarm in the Firuzabad Plain (Fars, Iran) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/2975 <p>We present the preliminary results of our recent find, a circular pond, and its surrounding structures, built in stone masonry of Sasanian tradition in the Dehbarm village, west Firuzabad Plain (Fars, Iran). We elaborate on this site and suggest it belongs to the Early Sasanian Ardashir-Xurra (Ardašīr-Xwarrah), the first Sasanian capital and complex urban plan of the Firuzabad plain. Based on comparable finds, we interpret Dehbarm as a garden settlement, a so-called paradise, and consider it a case study for water management and landscape manipulation of the Late Antiquity in the Greater Fars. Additionally, we ponder on the broader aspect of spring-fed ponds in the Sasanian architectural tradition. Further investigation, as well as extensive fieldwork, is planned to address this aspect.</p> Elnaz RASHIDIAN Alireaza ASKARI CHAVERDI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Historia i Świat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 11 41 48 10.34739/his.2022.11.02 Two Sasanian rock reliefs of the king combatting a lion https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/2976 <p>This article analyzes the scene of the Sasanian king combating a lion in two rock reliefs. Most Sasanian Bas-reliefs belong to the first 150 years of the dynasty and most are located in modern Fars province. The reliefs typically depict the king’s investiture by a deity (who is usually Ahurā Mazdā, but, in some reliefs, Mithra or Anāhitā), the king with courtiers, the king with his family, the king at war, the king’s triumph over his enemies, and the king fighting and hunting wild animals. Two of the bas-reliefs of the king killing animals show him killing lions. One is located at Sar Mašhad and the other, less-known, is kept in the Haft-Tanān Museum, Shiraz, and was discovered at the foothills of Pahnu (Pahnā) Mount in Dārāb. In the ancient Near East, the lion symbolized power, courage, and ferociousness: whoever could confront it successfully was regarded as powerful and brave; consequently, many kings have been portrayed fighting lions (and other wild animals) during this period.</p> Parsa GHASEMI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Historia i Świat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 11 49 70 10.34739/his.2022.11.03 The Susa salvage project in 2019, southwestern Iran https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3009 <p>The World Heritage Site of Susa constantly encounters challenges in the development and expansion of Shush city. In 2019, a salvage archaeological project was undertaken to counter the construction of a transportation underpass in the vicinity of world property. The results showed that this section was related to the industrial activities of the Parthian and Sasanid eras and probably a cemetery of the Islamic era.</p> Siavash SORAGHI Mohsen ZEYNIVAND Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 Historia i Świat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-11 2022-08-11 11 71 79 10.34739/his.2022.11.04 The Chronology of the Archaeological surface remains of Tepe Pa-Chogha, Central Zagros (Kermanshah, Iran) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3018 <p>The highland plains of western Iran have been investigated with varying intensity. The Sarfirouzabad plain, located in the south of Kermanshah province, although visited perfunctorily, has not previously been studied systematically, despite desirable ecological and environmental conditions. In 2009, a team from the University of Tehran conducted a systematic and intensive field survey in the region to identify archaeological settlements and to assess their location concerning ecological, environmental and cultural factors impacted the distribution of sites on the plain. The surveyed area was walked in transects at 20-metre intervals and resulted in the identification of 332 archaeological sites from different cultural periods, which added much to the limited knowledge about the history of this region. During this survey, Pa-Chogha as the biggest tell site in the area, was identified. Fifty-nine samples of pottery and five stone tools were collected from the surface of Pa-Chogha dated from Late Chalcolithic to Islamic periods. Unfortunately, due to the expansion of Pa-Chogha village, the site is in danger of being destroyed. Our aim to publish this article is to introduce the Pa-Chogha as an important site for the chronology of Central Zagros at first, and preventing the further destruction of this site at the second.</p> Mohammad Amin MIRGHADERI Kamal Aldin NIKNAMI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-22 2022-08-22 11 81 114 10.34739/his.2022.11.05 Archers from Rag-i Bibi. Notes on the equipment depicted on Rag-i Bibi relief (Northern Afghanistan) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3061 <p>The rock relief discovered in Rag-e Bibi in Northern Afghanistan in 2002 remains an archaeological sensation. The archery equipment depicted there has not yet been studied. The article describes the bow cases combined with quivers and associates them with the same type of kit popular in Eurasia related with spread of the recurved bows with stiff bone or horn extensions of Xiong Nu/Hunnic<br>type. This type of bows replaced shorter 'Scythian' type of bows in 1st-2nd century CE. The integrated bow case and quiver went out of use soon before the rise of the Sasanians therefore Rag-e Bibi cannot be linked with this dynastic art, based also on the depicted elements of material culture, as well as on stylistic grounds.</p> Patryk SKUPNIEWICZ Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 11 115 124 10.34739/his.2022.11.06 An Overview of Military Confrontations between of the Assyrian Army against the Medes in the 7th centuries BCE https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3060 <p>The article discusses the military confrontation between Neo-Assyrian kingdom and the Median polities in the 7th century BCE. At the beginning the outline of the history of wars between the Medes and Assyria from the 9th century onwards is presented which is followed by the brief description of the Assyrian forces of the era and detailed examination of the events until the fall of the Neo-Assyrian empire. In conclusions an attempt to reconstruct possible principles of the Median warfare was made.</p> Kaveh FARROKH Katarzyna MAKSYMIUK Patryk SKUPNIEWICZ Salam FATHI Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 11 125 144 10.34739/his.2022.11.07 Consequences of the Battle of Satala (298) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3023 <p>The priority for the Sasanid rulers was to eliminate from the throne of Armenia, the Parthian Arsacid dynasty, linked by blood ties to the formerly abolished Iranian ruling dynasty. In 298, the Battle of Satala took place in Armenia, in which the Roman army commanded by Caesar Galerius won a crushing victory over the Sassanian troops headed by King Narseh. The Romans captured huge amounts of booty and captured the Persian royal family. The campaign ended with a peace treaty very favourable to Rome, in which Narseh renounced Trans-Tigritania, pledged non-intervention in Armenia, and recognised the Roman protectorate in Iberia. The revision of the so-called Treaty of Nisibis was the foundation of the Persian-Roman wars in the 4th century carried out by Shapur II. In this study, it is aimed to give information about the effect of the Battle of Satala on the beginning of the Persian-Roman wars in the 4th century and its results.</p> Katarzyna MAKSYMIUK Parviz HOSSEIN TALAEE Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 11 145 154 10.34739/his.2022.11.08 The Northern kʻustak administrative units of the Sasanian Iran in 6th century CE https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3021 <p>In the 6th century CE, the Sasanian empire was divided into four administrative units already during the second reign of Kavad I, however, it was during the time of Khosrov Anushirvan that these regions were transformed into the military-administrative units – kʻustaks, where the administrative power belonged to the padgospan and the military to the spahbed. The northern kʻustak or kʻust-i-Kapkoh was included the marzpanates: Armenia (divided into the three military-administrative units – Tanutirakan gund, Vaspurakan gund, Syunikʻ), Georgia, Albania and the šahrs: Adharbādhakān, Gīlān, Dlmunkʻ, Zanjān, Ghazvīn, Ṭabaristān and Ray. This paper reviews the administrative of the northern kʻustak based on the Classical Armenian, Arabic and Persian primary sources.</p> Henrik KHACHATRYAN Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 11 155 163 10.34739/his.2022.11.09 The Daylamite Involvement in the Lazic War (541-562) https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3024 <p>In the Late Antiquity, the Caucasus region had become a battle ground for the Byzantines and the Sasanians. The conflict between the two great empires escalated in the 6th century, when both sides overcame internal conflicts and pursued active foreign policies. The Lazic War (541-562 CE), fought on the territory of modern western Georgia, then the Lazic Kingdom, was one of the most important conflicts of the Late Antiquity and an integral part of the unremitting wars of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian. The conflict witnessed both sides employing combatant populations residing within the borders of their empires. Among them were the Daylamites, a kin-group from the rugged mountains of northern Iran, just south of the Caspian Sea who had long served as mercenaries for various powers. This article discusses the combat culture, tactics, equipment, and role of the Daylamites in the Sasanian military campaigns in the Caucasus in the 6th century CE.</p> Nika KHOPERIA Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-08-28 2022-08-28 11 165 172 10.34739/his.2022.11.10 The plan of Kamianets-Podilskyi from 1773 https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/historiaswiat/article/view/3042 <p>The paper discusses a plan of the Kamianets-Podilskyi fortress from the year 1773, which has not been known until now. The performed analyses of the biographical notes of the Reibnitz family, demonstrated that the most probable author is Ferdinand Friedrich Christoph von Reibnitz, a standard-bearer and later captain of the regiment of royal infantry. The descriptions in the plan and the legend were made in German. The shape of the city and of the castles is represented in a very deformed way, however, the plan includes many details of the city surroundings, such as the locations of windmills or of the Evangelical and Jewish cemeteries. The errors in the representation of both castles, the new one and the old one, suggest that the discussed plan is a copy of the plan kept in Berlin, at the Prussian Privy State Archives.</p> Leszek OPYRCHAŁ Prawa autorskie (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-09 2022-09-09 11 361 371 10.34739/his.2022.11.23