Historia i Świat 2023-09-24T20:54:54+00:00 Katarzyna Maksymiuk Open Journal Systems <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2299-2464</p> <p><strong>e-ISSN:</strong> 2956-6436</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> 10.34739/his</p> <p><strong>Współczynnik odrzuceń nadsyłanych artykułów:</strong> ok. 30%</p> <p><strong>Punktacja MEiN:</strong> 70</p> <p> </p> Strona tytułowa i spis treści 2023-09-24T20:37:16+00:00 Zespół redakcyjny 2023-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Who was the author of the map of the Khotyn fortress siege of 1788? 2023-08-26T07:47:29+00:00 Leszek OPYRCHAŁ <p>Two maps documenting the capture of Khotyn, which took place during the Russian-Turkish war fought in 1787-1792, have been preserved in Polish archival collections. One was made by Adam Dłuski, the other is anonymous. A comparison of the details of the two maps and the plan of the Kamianets-Podilskyi fortress made by Jan Bakałowicz shows that the author of the anonymous map was the commanding officer of the Kamianets-Podilskyi fortress – Józef de Witte. Due to the fact that his wife, Zofia, maintained too close relationships with General Saltykov, who commanded the Russian army, he was accused of treason. Probably in order to regain the favor of the Polish King Stanisław August Poniatowski, Józef de Witte made a map of the siege of Khotyn.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The Investigation of residential architecture in the Bronze Age. Tape Yal (Yalda), Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran 2023-08-14T12:16:39+00:00 Zohreh OVEISI-KEIKHA Hosseinali KAVOSH <p>The first villages were formed during the Neolithic period, when people began building residential architecture. Villages continued to exist in Iran until the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC, when the first cities appeared. Settlement in Shahr-i Sokhta had begun during this period, and in the 3rd millennium BC, the city’s size expanded and many related-settlement sites were formed in the Sistan plain. A prominent related-settlement site of Shahr-i Sokhta is Tape Yal or Taleb Khan 2, located 11 kilometres from the city. An excavation was conducted at this site by one of the author. This article analyses the architectural features of this site, a Bronze Age village of the Hirmand civilization, based on the findings of this excavation. It has been determined that this site contains residential buildings, workshops, and storage rooms with mudbrick construction. The above residential buildings probably belonged to the craftsmen of this village who lived next to their workshops.</p> 2023-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Cremation in Elamite period (Sukkalmah): Hirbodan site 2023-08-14T12:36:13+00:00 Sepideh Jamshidi YEGANEH <p>Every region and period have its own characteristics when it comes to burial, which is considered a part of spiritual and material culture. Since burial practices are influenced by society's thoughts, beliefs, and culture, studying them can help reconstruct the evolution of ancient culture. Large parts of Iran were considered the territory of the Elamite civilisation from about 2700 BCE until the beginning of the Achaemenid empire. While various studies have been conducted on the cultural materials of this period, burial methods, especially in the old Elamite period, remain unknown. The evidence of cremation is one of unique features that could be observed among burying ritual in each society. Based on the findings, this article describes the evidence for cremation in the Old Elamite period in south of Iran. In Hirbodan, a burial was buried in a crouching position and burned with wood sticks. It can be concluded from the burn marks on the skeleton and the soil beneath the body, that the body had been burned inside the grave before being covered in soil. This burial is associated with the period of old Elamite and with the reign of the Sukkalmah dynasty based on the analysis of pottery and C14 results.</p> 2023-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Achaemenid Settlement in Shiraz Plain: Tol-e Sefid Sadra 2023-08-14T12:46:54+00:00 Alireza ASKARI CHAVERDI <p>Shiraz plain is one of the most important plains adjacent to Persepolis. Tirazziš place have been mentioned in the Persepolis Archives many times. For further research on the place name of modern Shiraz with what is mentioned in the Achaemenid’s Archives, it was necessary to carried out an archeological survey in this plain. Objective and methodical archeological researches had not been carried out in the Shiraz plain until 2008. In the process of this new methodical archaeological survey, one of the most important ancient sites of the Achaemenid and Post-Achaemenid periods was identified in the Shiraz plain. According to the ceramic documents, this site was inhabited in the Achaemenid and Post-Achaemenid periods. Shiraz is mentioned in the Persepolis Archives under the Elamite form Tirazziš. This site attests to the situation of the Shiraz plain in the Achaemenid and Post-Achaemenid periods. The introduction of this ancient site provides a new perspective to understand the relationship between the Shiraz plain in the Achaemenid period and its connection with Persepolis.</p> 2023-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Cairn Burial of the historical period around Khansaar dam, Toujerdi district of Fars province, Iran 2023-08-14T12:58:14+00:00 Morteza KHANIPOUR Hamed MOLAEI KORDSHOULI <p>In the historical period, the Fars region in Iran was one of the most important cultural areas in the world, and it is considered the origin of the ancient Achaemenid and Sasanian empires. Although some areas of Sarchahan county have been studied well, no archaeological survey has been conducted there until the construction of Khansaar Dam and rescue operations in its area. As part of an archaeological survey in the Toujerdi district of Sarchahan county, 92 cairn burials were found. According to the survey conducted in five areas around Khansaar Dam, the distribution of cairn burials, commonly known as Khereftkhaneh, has been identified. From Pakistan to the west of Iran, this type of burial method can be observed, and the burials of Toujerdi region can be considered associated with burials from the Parthian and Sasanian periods.</p> 2023-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Arrowheads in the cultural-historical property repository of the Administration of Cultural Heritage of Kerman. An Introduction 2023-08-14T13:28:34+00:00 Ehsan KHONSARINEJAD Reza RIAHIYAN GOHORTI Sahar TAVAKOLI <p>In this paper, the authors have examined 94 unprovenanced arrowheads (tanged and socketed) that are stored in the cultural historical property repository of the Administration of Cultural Heritage of Kerman Province (Southeastern Iran). The illlegal possessors claimed to have discovered the arrowheads via illegal diggings in the Kerman Province. Most of the examined arrowheads were probably designed for warfare and are comparable to findings within current borders of Iran or its vicinity. Most of the tanged arrowheads probably date to the Iron Age of Iran (1450-550 B.C.). Most of the trilobate arrowheads can be compared to the findings of Achaemenid sites or resemble items that have been excavated from layers associated with the Achaemenids. Some of the Bronze Age arrowheads, however, could not be compared with any items that have been recovered from Iran or its neighboring regions.</p> 2023-08-14T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Study of Pottery Technology in Kura-Araxes Culture of Astanakroud 2 Site of Kojur County Using Petrographic Method 2023-08-25T09:18:10+00:00 Mohammad Hossein REZAEI Parastoo MASJEDI KHAK Ali MOTAVALI RAMEH <p>The pottery samples under investigation in this study include the findings of the Astankroud 2 Site in the Kojur region of western Mazandaran Province. The site was uncovered during an archaeological survey of the region in 2010 and has been thus far the easternmost site of Kura-Araxes. Considering the importance of discussions concerning the characteristics of this culture and the reasons for its spread in a vast geographic area extending from the southern coast of the Caspian Sea to the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, 15 pottery pieces of Kura-Araxes were subject to petrographic study in order to determine the mineralogy structure of the pottery recovered from Astanakroud Site. The experiments on these pieces were conducted using a polarizing microscope (James Swift) at the Petrographic Laboratory of the Institute for Protection and Restoration of Works affiliated with Cultural Heritage Research. According to the results of experiments, it was revealed that all the pottery had been locally produced. A petrographic study of Astanakroud pottery reveals that the pottery has been produced using soil resulting from erosion of geological structure in the northern part of the Kojur region (with volcanic structure) that has been washed up by natural currents traversing the valleys of Nimvar, Avil, and Kouhpar to the foot of the site.</p> 2023-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat A systematic survey of Ardashir Palace’s Stronghold at Tol-e Khezr, Firuzabad Plain in Fars Province, Iran 2023-08-25T09:33:34+00:00 Homayoun ABBASNIA Alireza ASKARI CHAVERDI <p>This research investigated the archaeological site of Tol-e Khezr in Firuzabad with the purpose of establishing a relative chronology. This site is among those whose pottery has been less extensively studied, and it also boasts a strategic location. Therefore, the site of Tol-e Khezr was selected for systematic sampling and investigation of its structures to ascertain its relative chronology and usage as accurately as possible. A methodical approach was chosen for the investigation of Tol-e Khezr, consisting of three steps: mapping, sampling, and documentation of the findings (including washing the pottery, registering the pottery fragments, entering the information of the findings into SPSS software, selecting the diagnostic samples, drawing the diagnostic samples, and photographing the samples). In this methodical way, 50% of all grids were sampled, with the form of every other grid. This included 30 grids of 10 x 10 meters. The number of all gathered pottery comprised 644 pieces. To interpret the pottery, we considered 12 variables for them, and the information on each piece was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) according to these variables. One of the most essential classifications relates to the typology of Tol-e Khezr pottery forms, which parallels various surveyed and excavated areas' findings in Iran and beyond. Furthermore, the survey revealed that, in addition to typical pottery, three distinct types of ceramic were identified: coarse with raised bands, glazed (alkaline), and ceramics with a dark slip coating. At this firm, architecture and its details in visible and exposed areas were documented, described, analyzed, and compared.</p> 2023-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Creation in Ancient Elam based on Royal Elamite Inscriptions and Rock Reliefs 2023-09-08T14:29:15+00:00 Iraj DADASHI Milad JAHANGIRFAR Saeed SEYYED AHMADI ZAVIEH <p>Royal Elamite inscriptions offer valuable insights into a range of themes related to ancient Iran. However, to date, no Elamite creation myth has been recovered. Nonetheless, there exist indirect references in the inscriptions and rock reliefs that can be used to reconstruct such an account. This study aims to partially reconstruct the Elamite genesis by examining the linguistic and iconographical clues. It is important to note, however, that this primary investigation provides only limited insights into the creation myth in ancient Elam.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Early Iranian Riders and Cavarly 2023-09-19T07:00:12+00:00 Kaveh FARROKH Katarzyna MAKSYMIUK Patryk SKUPNIEWICZ <p>The expansion of the Iranian peoples in first centuries of the 1st millennium BCE coincides with the creation and further development of the cavalry warfare in western Eurasia, as well as with the creation of the pastoral nomadic life-style which dominated the Great Steppe for millennia to come. The mounted warriors replaced the light chariots which dominated the Bronze Age battlefields which required perfect horsemanship however application of the recurved, double reflex. composite bow for mounted combat seemed another important factor in development of the cavalry force. Mounted archery which doubled the fire power of the mobile troops, earlier dominated by the chariots triggered the evolution of the various forms of cavalry, both as a response to a threat of the horse archers and independent forces used by the sedentary societies. Iranian contribution in spreading (and most likely invention) of the new technology is undeniable. Although horse riding and recurved composite bows were known earlier they could not overcome the power of the chariot force separately. Only the combination of the factors allowed fielding large and efficient cavalry troops as was practiced by the Scythians and became the success factor for the Achaemenid Empire. Survival of the chariots as late as the Seleucid times was possible because of changing their tactical function from the highly mobile shooting platform to heavy, at least partially, armored terror and shock weapon.</p> 2023-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Reforms of Sasanian king Khusro I and the northern bank of the Araxes – Arrān (Caucasus Albania) 2023-08-26T04:36:35+00:00 Mahir KHALIFA-ZADEH Katarzyna MAKSYMIUK <p>The article considers the Sasanian king Khusro I Anushirwan’s reforms to improve the empire’s military and administrative architecture in the northwestern region of Ērānšahr, by creating the kust ī Ādurbādagān. The authors believes that it was a key element in the Sasanian strategy to enforce both central and military power in the defense sensitive Caucasia. The authors argues that the reform initiated the projecting of Ādurbādagān’s name, military, and administrative functions in Arrānšahr forming a strong interrelationship between the southern and northern sides of the Araxes as the entire Ādurbādagānšahr. Since Late Antiquity, Ādurbādagān and Arrān became interchangeable names and were in use on the northern bank of the Araxes.</p> 2023-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat ‹‹Taǰik›› and Other Names to Denote Muslims in Armenian Historical Sources as a Reflection of the Cognition of a Different Ethnic-confessional Community 2023-08-26T05:09:13+00:00 Gor MARGARYAN <p>In the course of history, peoples and tribes have given each other designations on the basis of distinctive features, qualities and circumstances. The pretext for the creation of such names was the geographical area, special qualities of a particular people, religious affiliation or epic genesis. With the beginning of the Arab conquests and campaigns in the middle of the 7th century CE, Armenia fell under Arab domination becoming part of the Arab Caliphate within the next decade. The aim of the paper is to present what names were given to Muslims in what historical context, how these names reflected the perception of a different ethnoreligious community.</p> 2023-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Gordāfarid of Šāh-nāma, the woman, who revolutionized the naqqāli tradition 2023-08-26T05:19:14+00:00 Joanna SZKLARZ Maryam MORADI <p>Šāh-nāma of Firdowsī and the naqqāli tradition are two distinctive traditions of Iran. Šāh-nāma, an epic that tells the story of pre-Islamic Iran, focuses on a heroic narrative. The naqqāli’s distinctive feature, against the background of other oral traditions, is the combination of heroic and religious narrative in order to spread Shiism in a way that is interesting to the audience. Ferdowsī's work and the naqqāli tradition represent two periods in Iran’s history and its traditions and culture. These periods are separated by the Islamic invasion and the fall of the Sasanid dynasty. Despite some ideological differences, the Šāh-nāma was for a number of centuries one of the sources for naqqāli and from the early period of the Pahlavi dynasty became its main focus. The article briefly discusses the naqqāli tradition, Šāh-nāma of Firdowsī and the relationship between the two. It also introduces the figure of Gordāfarid, daughter of Gaždaham, who, being the heroine of the Persian national epic, became the inspiration for a revolutionary change in the naqqāli tradition – the first naqqāl woman.</p> 2023-08-25T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Himmelsbeobachtungen und deren Messung, von der Regierungszeit des Gudea von Lagash bis zum Almagest des Claudius Ptolemäus 2023-08-26T05:30:58+00:00 Jens KLEB <p>The present article gives an overview on the development of the measurement and practical acquisition of circle section dimensions since the late 3rd millennium BC. In key points, the prerequisites and practical implementation for celestial observations over approx. 1500 years up to the 8th century BC are collected and analyzed, in terms of their logical requirements and connected archaeological findings. A comprehensible and unambiguous calculation is made for the celestial dimensions in cubits used from the 8th to the 2nd century BC, for which estimated values between 2.5 and 2.1 angular degrees have been determined since Kugler 1900 until to recently researchers. Therefore, for the first time, the exact transformation value is presented here. Not only the connections and the further development of this celestial measurement system are presented, but also its coherent adaptation up to the first definition and use of the angular unit measurement, which is still used today, around 200 BC. In addition, some data and their previous interpretation from various sources are put up for discussion, which even include the table of Chords, presented by Ptolemy in his Almagest and their use.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Entertaining the Royalty. A forgotten tradition of the Vidushaka in Ancient Indian History 2023-08-26T05:40:42+00:00 Pushpraj SINGH Preeti SHARMA <p>This paper provides an overview of the importance of dwarf figures/jesters in Ancient Indian history and society. There are numerous dwarf-like figures depicted in ancient Indian temples. These little figurines would have not only filled the area and add decorative value but also, they have a small but significant place in iconography. A dwarf-like figure, the Vidushaka, who was a brahmin with a tuft on his head and a staff in his hand, was found on the walls of Ajanta and in the Natyashastra text. His occupation is to light the stressful environment by making the court laughing. It goes without saying how valuable the Vidushaka is as a kind of entertainment in ancient India. The objective of this research is to look at how the Vidushaka (jester) had been contributing to the ‘entertainment industry’ of ancient India and how they have been portrayed through out the history (from ancient to medieval times). This would also allow us to discover that jesters were not only adept at entertaining others with amusing jokes, but also able to express himself on the oddities of human life.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Attempts to raise the educational level of the Uniate clergy at the Basilian Seminary in Novy Sverzhen (1743-1833) 2023-09-19T07:15:24+00:00 Dzianis LISEICHYKAU Dorota WEREDA <p>The aim of this paper is to present the activities of the first educational institution educating Uniate clergy in the Metropolitan Diocese of Kiev and its role in the education of the Uniate community of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The seminary was founded in 1743 by Michał Kazimierz Radziwiłł 'Rybeńko' in Novy Sverzhen (Nowy Świerżeń). The conduct of the seminary was entrusted to the Order of the Lithuanian Basilian Province. Monks served as rectors and teachers. The curriculum was modeled on Jesuit colleges. The seminary in Novy Sverzhen was planned for 12 alumni. The seminar educated clergymen for the Uniate parishes located in the Radziwiłł estate. The first seminary in the Uniate Metropolitan Diocese of Kiev did not solve the problem of the low intellectual level of the Uniate clergy. In relation to the needs the ability to train 12 alumni was far too small. The seminary closed in 1828.</p> 2023-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Genealogical Basis of Epos as the Historical and Cultural Heritage of the Folk 2023-08-26T05:52:43+00:00 Bakyt AITBAYEVA Kamzhat TOLEUBAYEVA Zhansaya ZHARYLGAPOV Sarzhan TAKIROV Zhanar RUSTEMOVA <p>The Kazakh folk epic talks about the heroic deeds and life of nomadic tribes, being the historical and cultural heritage of the nation, which has been passed from mouth to mouth for centuries, thereby preserving national memory and contributing to the maintenance of patriotic feelings. The purpose of this article is not only to consider the Kazakh epic in the traditional vein of narrating about the historical past, but also to emphasize its ethnographic and genealogical value. By analyzing epic poetry, folk songs and folklore in general, as well as examining fragments of individual works, the authors recreate a holistic picture of the genealogical basis of the folk epic. The article compares the differences in the traditions of the Kazakh epic poetry of the 16th-18th and 19th centuries, which are observed, first of all, in the compositional structure, the subject of the story, the worldview in general. According to the results of the study, it was determined that the genealogical basis of the Kazakh folk epic lies in a certain archetype of a hero, the only son born to become a defender of the honor and dignity of the nation. At the same time, special attention is paid to describing its origin through a poetic description of its family tree. From this follows the complex genre of the epic chronicle, which has artistic and historical value and is an example of spiritual heritage. This study is of practical use for specialists in the field of history, literature, ethnography and genealogy.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The position of the Entente States on the idea of Armenia’s independence (1917 and early 1918) 2023-08-26T06:12:53+00:00 Samvel POGHOSYAN Genya GHRMAJYAN <p>The article highlights the emergence of the idea of Armenia’s independence at the end of the First World War. The Russian revolutions and the position of the United States brought new ideas to the problems of colonization and self-determination of nations. In the autumn of 1917, representatives of the great powers began to speak positively about the independence of Armenia. This eventually led to the declaration of independence of Armenia on May 28, 1918. The article is based on archival materials and collections of documents. Many archival sources are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The analyzes were presented based on verified facts. The study was conducted by the historicalcomparative method, according to the principle of historicity. An attempt has been made to present the problem in its entirety. In this article, we have revealed the position of Great Britain, France and the United States on the issue of the formation of an independent Armenian state.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Soviet Coordinators of International Economic Cooperation in the Eastern Bloc in the Period 1948-1953 2023-08-26T06:22:56+00:00 Ondřej FIŠER <p>This article is a discourse on the main trendsetters of international economic cooperation in the Eastern Bloc in the period 1948-1953. Special emphasis is placed on the architects of cooperation between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, since both countries established themselves as economic leaders after the Second World War and, moreover, developed a number of specific close links between their industries. The article focuses on the role of top officials of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In addition, the paper also explores the role of Soviet advisors who stewarded the economies of the other Eastern Bloc states, both from Moscow and as seconded delegates directly from the ministries and enterprises of the individual members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The constitutional status and educational development of the non-Albanian and Albanian minoritie in Yugoslavia 1945-1974 2023-08-26T06:37:10+00:00 Kosovar BASHA <p>The paper carefully deals with the constitutional aspect and the development of education in Yugoslavia, which in the general background affects the general minorities in Yugoslavia such as Bulgarians, Italians, Germans, Hungarians and with special emphasis – Albanians. The author has followed the descriptive and analytical scientific methods for dealing with this important issue for general historiography. A serious Yugoslav and Albanian literature covering this socially and scientifically important study has been used.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Manipulation techniques aiming at discrediting the Church among soldiers of the Polish People’s Army during John Paul’s II second pilgrimage to Poland 2023-08-26T06:46:26+00:00 Paweł ORŁOWSKI <p>The aim of the following article is to present how the Armed Forces of the Polish People's Republic reacted to the second pilgrimage of John Paul II to Poland. It outlines multiple processes, mainly of social origin, which occurred during the preparations for the visit, its course and after its completion. Moreover, the author depicts political and cultural circumstances in which soldiers and conscripts had to serve. At the same time, numerous manipulation techniques that were used to discredit the Catholic Church have been included.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The Polish-Russian ‘monument war’ in the context of the Law and Justice’s historical policy 2023-08-26T06:54:04+00:00 Konrad SŁOWIŃSKI <p>The article addresses the issue of the influence of historical conditions on Polish-Russian relations on the threshold of the 21st century. After the collapse of the communist system in Poland in 1989, the new political elites, guiding the process of democratic transition in the Third Republic of Poland, made efforts to settle the disputed threads of common Polish-Russian history. One of the sources of conflict in terms of the historical burdens was case the removal by Poland of monuments to Red Army soldiers who died on Polish soil. This problem has become an important antagonistic element in bilateral relations, leading to the outbreak of a Polish-Russian 'monument war'. To a large extend, the disputes over Soviet monuments dominated discussions in the Polish-Russian relations, creating another field of conflict on the historical level.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The main trends in the use of documents in the Central State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation of the Republic of Kazakhstan 2023-08-26T07:08:45+00:00 Syrym SABLIN Dariusz MAGIER <p>According to the state program ‘Archive 2025’ for wide access to archival documents in Kazakhstan the web portal ‘Unified electronic archive of documents was launched’. At the moment, there is no information on the funds of the Central State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation on this site yet, but it is planned to add it to the electronic catalog in the future. For the successful implementation of data on documents stored in the funds of the Central State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation, it is necessary to analyze which types of documents are most popular among the archive users (both in the reading room and when executing information requests by the archive) and which need to be translated into electronic format as a priority, for this purpose, the reports of the Central State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation were studied for the period from 1974 to 2021.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Revival of the Silk Road legacy. Examining how China uses history to legitimize its ‹‹Belt and Road Initiative›› 2023-08-26T07:20:09+00:00 Punsara AMARASINGHE <p>This article is an interdisciplinary inquiry into the usage of historical silk routes by the Chinese as a popular narrative for the modern BRI. While looking at the archaeological trace, the historiography and other dimensions, this article would unfold how the nostalgia on the ‘Silk Routes’ have been rejuvenated for an ambitious geopolitical project. Taking both land and maritime silk routes into the consideration, this paper would further consider the position of historical narratives for the geopolitical ambitions of the 21st century.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The State of Philippine-Iran Bilateral Relations, Maximizing Values, Human Potentials and Shared History 2023-08-26T07:29:38+00:00 Henelito A. SEVILLA jr <p>The Philippines and Iran are two important players in the geopolitical transition of Asian and the Pacific region. The geopolitical values that these two countries held over many decades exposes them to rivalries and competition among regional and international powers. In some part of history, they became a closed ally to the United States, while regime change in Iran in the late 1970s had created some sort of difficulty for both countries to improve bilateral relations amidst normalization. This paper therefore seeks to investigate existing domestic and external factors that can help explain the underdeveloped state of their bilateral relations. In doing so, the paper advances the idea that although the Philippines and Iran are sovereign and independent countries, the course and direction of their relation since the post-1979 event was heavily affected by the US policy vis-à-vis the Philippines and Iran.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Potocki Eustachy, Sitkowski Stanisław Kostka Apolinary 2023-08-26T07:55:50+00:00 Joanna KOWALIK-BYLICKA <p>Biographies of people born or related to activities in the area of Southern Podlasie and Eastern Mazovia.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Dariusz Brodka, Prokop von Caesarea. Studienbücher Antike. Bd. 19, Hildesheim, Zürich, New York: Georg Olms Verlag, 2022, ISBN: 978-3-487-16270-6 2023-08-26T07:40:18+00:00 Erich KETTENHOFEN <p>Book Review</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Mirosław Michalak, Konteksty kulturowe średniowiecznego eposu irańskiego Garšāspnāme i ich źródła. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa UW, 2020, ISBN: 978-83-235-4271-1 2023-09-24T20:47:15+00:00 Patryk SKUPNIEWICZ <p>Book Review</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The pottery from Chia Sor, the Qara-Su River basin (Kermanshah, Iran) 2023-08-26T08:05:12+00:00 Ali NOURALLAHI <p>Chia Sor is a hill located 2 kilometers from the Qarasu River and on the northern slopes of Kuh i Sefid (Kyva Charmi) and south of Kermanshah city. The pottery of this area, is related to Godin III4, III5 and III6. During the author's visit to this site, a number of surface pottery sherds was collected, which the comparative study of the pottery shows that they belong to the Godin III6 period.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat The youth of Bohdan Hawrylyshyn (1926-1944) 2023-08-26T08:12:13+00:00 Petro HAVRYLYSHYN Oleh ZHERNOKLEIEV Rafał ROGUSKI <p>The article highlights the youth of a well-known Ukrainian, scientist and economist Bohdan Dmytrovych Hawrylyshyn (1926-2016). Important factors that affected further development of his worldview and personality are traced. Important facts from the life of Bohdan Hawrylyshyn over the researched period are clarified on the basis of the memories left, interviews, and other sources.</p> 2023-08-26T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat Solidarity in the Context of Migration: A Philosophical Perspective 2023-09-10T22:17:04+00:00 Grzegorz BARTH <p>Solidarity is a permanent component of social life. In this sense, it becomes a transformative value that clearly connects people and their projects with others. The current situation in the world sharpens the issue of human solidarity. War, migration crises, aggressive globalization, territorial elitism, consumerism, populism, and the ideologization of social discourse lead to the distortion or elimination of the idea of solidarity. Nowadays, there are multi-level and multi-directional changes and transformations in individual and social ethos. Therefore, understanding solidarity requires an analysis of the context in which it is applied, as well as basic scientific assumptions. The article addresses this issue in the context of migration. It consists of three main elements: 1/ Firstly, it explains the philosophical phenomenon of solidarity as a very complex and multi-faceted individual and social reality; 2/ It portrays solidarity as a European virtue and value, which today seems to be experiencing certain difficulties in the EU’s migration policy, particularly revealed by the refugee crisis; 3/ It presents several ways of reflecting on solidarity in the light of representatives of contemporary philosophy and theoreticians of political thought (H.G. Gadamer, J. Dean, A. Grimmel, J. Tischner). These proposals can become an opportunity and a call to reflect on solidarity in times of its axiological and actual deficit.</p> 2023-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat A memoir about Dr. Ryszard Piasek – a Poznań filmmaker 2023-09-24T20:54:54+00:00 Katarzyna BALBUZA <p>A memoir about Dr. Ryszard Piasek – a filmmaker, reporter, social activist and film producer.</p> 2023-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Prawa autorskie (c) 2023 Historia i Świat