Air transport is currently one of the major branches of transport both in the national – and global – economies. It is one of the fastest, most expensive, but at the same time also most effective types of transportation. It plays a fundamental role in the global economy, particularly in the transcontinental carriage of goods and passengers. Its availability and quality constitute a powerful driving force for a country’s development. Air freight transport, both in Poland and worldwide, is seen mostly from the angle of long-distance passenger flights. Given that, one often tends to forget the role of this transport branch in the case of freight transport. Air cargo transport is a booming branch with great development potential. The development of air freight is the key for gaining a competitive advantage by Polish enterprises. This, however, is related to considerable experience and knowledge on the part of both the carrier and the owner of goods with regards to the technical capacities of a given aircraft, maintenance costs, and rule awareness. The objective of the paper is to present the volumes of air cargo shipments in Poland and to identify the hazards and obstacles to its development. The study authors endeavour to analyse air freight transport in Poland. To this end, details will be presented regarding air cargo transport at Polish airports based on the Civil Aviation Authority (ULC) and Central Statistical Office (GUS) data and air market reports.