Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja <p><strong>ISSN:</strong> 2082-5501</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> 10.34739/zn</p> <p><strong>Points:</strong> 40</p> Wydawnictwo Naukowe UPH en-US Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie 2082-5501 DETERMINANTS OF THE OWN INCOME OF MUNICIPALITIES IN THE LUBUSKIE PROVINCE IN THE LIGHT OF THE RESULTS OF ECONOMETRIC MODELING https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja/article/view/2785 <p>The local development of municipalities is a process taking place in a specific place and time. One of the most important measures of this process is the own income of municipalities, proceeding from the sources within the territory of a given local government. Their level depends to a large extent on internal determinants related to the nature of local economic activity. However, the impact of external and spatial determinants has to be taken into account as well. This paper reviews the literature dealing with determinants influencing the own income of municipalities and presents the results of an empirical case study of the Lubuskie Province. For the purpose of the study spatial econometric methods were used. On the basis of the data for 1999-2020, panel models of the own income of municipalities in the analysed region with spatial autoregression of the explained variable (SAR) and spatial autocorrelation of the random component (SE) were estimated. Both models were compared with the classical model estimated by the least squares method. The results of the research indicate the existence of a number of correlations between the own income of municipalities in the region, the examined explanatory variables and the spatial factor.</p> Przemysław Szczuciński Copyright (c) 2022 Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 57 130 10.34739/zn.2021.57.01 THE THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL APPROACHES IN CYPRUS DURING COVID-19 RESTRICTIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION ORGANISATIONS https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja/article/view/2749 <p>COVID-19-induced restrictions on traditional classroom-based contact have posed significant challenges to academic teaching and students as well as to the management of HEIs. The new setting and extraordinary government directives culminated into threats to the quality of teaching, therefore it is important to study adaptation strategies1 in teaching and valuable lessons learned in an era when learning was substantially converted to online teaching. The main aim of this exploration study has been to identify how teaching staff adjusted teaching strategies during 2020 and what their expectations were with regards to their students’ intended learning outcomes, taking into account that learning outcomes are also related to student satisfaction. This is crucial in case COVID-19 restrictions are prolonged and online learning extended. Results from a group of 76 lecturers indicate that they have to some extent engaged in adapting conventional teaching methodologies to the new conditionalities; that for many among them, restrictions have negatively impacted quality of teaching while for a portion of lecturers the attainment of intended learning outcomes by students may have been a very difficult task. Results suggest the need to consider newer versions of teaching strategies identifying student problems; and enhancing engagement.</p> COSTAS CHRISTODOULIDES Copyright (c) 2022 Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 57 130 10.34739/zn.2021.57.02 THE INFLUENCE OF THE SARS-CoV-2 PANDEMIC ON LOANS IN BUCHAREST-ILFOV https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja/article/view/2741 <p>Recourse to a loan in the case of individuals is an expression of the growing desire to improve their living conditions, and to be able to purchase goods that meet the requirements of today's life. During the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, there have been other requirements, different from those of the previous period, and loans could be one of the ways to solve the new problems of the population of Bucharest-Ilfov. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of loans for the population of Bucharest-Ilfov in the pre-pandemic period and from the beginning of the pandemic and to understand the attitude that credit consumers may have during this period. The objectives of the study are to identify how the credited funds were used, in addition to the size of the amounts accessed. The credited amount represents only a dimensional, quantitative component, but what was purchased with the amount accessed through a loan is a qualitative component. The data were provided, without exposing the personal data of those who accessed a loan, by the National Bank, through FGDB. The results provide a clear picture of the increasing trend of the quantitative side, but there is a greater attention between the amounts credited in lei and those in foreign currency. Equally, the purpose for which these funds were accessed was oriented towards the goods of maximum necessity. Of these, real estate occupies a superior position, while the opposite population is loans for tourist services.</p> Alexandra Cioclu Camelia Teodorescu Cristian Cazacu Copyright (c) 2022 Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 57 130 10.34739/zn.2021.57.03 NFT METAVERSE STARTUPS AND A POSSIBILITY OF FUNDRAISING THROUGH TOKEN ISSUANCE https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja/article/view/2740 <p>Blockchain has been one of the leading technology breakthroughs in recent years. It has enabled the creation of multiple cryptocurrencies and tokens which, amongst others, financed the activities of various startup projects. The last few years have seen the emergence of another blockchain-enabled product – Non Fungible Tokens (NFT) which are a digital certificate of ownership. Both NFTs and tokens are wider part of the creation of a metaverse – a new digital, online environment. This article analyses theoretical aspects of cryptocurrencies, tokens, NFTs and metaverse. The fundraising and token issuance aspects are analysed here based on examples of startups Metahero, Ultiarena and Bloktopia.</p> Konrad Szczukiewicz Copyright (c) 2022 Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 57 130 10.34739/zn.2021.57.04 THE GOOD PRACTICES CLAUSE IN THE “ACT ON COMBATTING UNFAIR COMPETITION OF 16 APRIL 1993” AND IN THE LIGHT OF SELECTED JURISPRUDENCE. THE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS https://czasopisma.uph.edu.pl/znadministracja/article/view/2698 <p>This paper, employing historical-legal methods, presents selected court judgments on the good practices clause in the Act on Combatting Unfair Competition of 16 April 1993 (Ustawa o zwalczaniu nieuczciwej konkurencji z 16 kwietnia 1993 r.) (Journal of Laws 1993, No 47, item 211). The term unfair competition is used in the different legal categories in the act, which makes interpretation difficult. Each time the court determines the existence of two qualifications: entrepreneurs being in a court dispute conducting economic activity where there may be an infringement or a threat to the economic interests of the other entrepreneur. The innovative approach in this paper is based on what are ethical implications.</p> Marcin Bider Copyright (c) 2022 Zeszyty Naukowe UPH seria Administracja i Zarządzanie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 57 130 10.34739/zn.2021.57.05