This paper examines two methodological proposals presented in the XVII century as a way to enface the so-called knowledge problem. Comenius as well as Descartes, both pay attention to educational problems in a different way; and, most importantly, it must be remembered that theoretical and methodological disscussions are not strictly separate from practical ones. In other words, education problems are intrinsically related to epistemological questions and vice versa. For example, there is no methodological or epistemological proposal in Comenius and Descarted which is related to a way of educating and individual human being. Whatever philosophical construction is presented, it also involves an anthropological construction whcch is fulfilled in some kind of educational Proposal.