This article is devoted to the work of one of the prominent representatives of late
romanticism in Russia ‒ A.K. Tolstoy. The authors trace the evolution of the writer's
views on the main philosophical-poetic issues of the 1860s, analyze the historical
context and the literary process of that time. They also pay special attention to
the problem of determining the literary and ideological position of the poet. The
study contains an original interpretation of the poetic manifesto of Tolstoyromanticist
‒ «Against the Current».